Murphy's Nursing Law

Monday, October 15, 2007

  • When you need the money, your shift is cancelled; when you have a weekend planned, you have to do overtime.
  • Realizing the patient you've just injected has a serious infection causes you to stab yourself with the used needle.
  • A 500 pound patient needs all care, while your 80 pound patient needs a finger dressing ... and your colleague has a "bad back."
  • It's you're first night shift for three years. And it's a full moon.
  • You're doing the "Only 27 more minutes of the shift from hell happy-dance", only to turn around to see your supervisor standing there.
  • In a critical situation, the most highly qualified clinician will offer the most advice and the least support.
  • The absurdity of the suggestion is directly proportional to the distance from the bedside.
  • As soon as you finish a thirty minute dressing the doctor will come in, and take a look at the wound.
  • The disoriented patient always comes from a Nursing Home whose beautiful paperwork has no phone number on it.
  • Your nose will itch the very moment your gloved hands get contaminated with bodily fluids.
  • The patient who has been dying all night finally meets his maker 12.5 minutes before shift change.
  • You walk out of a patient's room after you've asked them if they need anything: they will put the call bell on as you are about three quarters the way down the hall.
  • The patient furthest away from the nurses' station rings the call bell more often than the patient nearest to the nurses' station.
  • The doctor with the worst handwriting and most original use of the English Language will be responsible for your most critical patient.
  • You always remember "just one more thing" you need after you've gowned, gloved, and masked and gone into that isolation room.
  • The correct depth of compression in adult CPR is a bit less than the depth you just reached when you broke those ribs.
  • When you cancel extra staff because it's so quiet, you are guaranteed a rash of admissions.
  • If you wear a new white uniform, expect to be thrown up on.
    Corollary: Residents always poop on your brand new shoes.
  • When management smiles at you, be very, very afraid ...
  • Staffing will gladly send you three aides--but you have to float two of your RNs.
  • As soon as you discontinue the IV line, more fluids will be ordered.
  • Mandatory meetings are always scheduled after you've had the night from hell and just want to go home to bed.
  • You always forget what it was you wanted after you get to the supply room. You always remember when you get back to the other end ...
  • Doctors only ask your name when the patient isn't doing well.
  • Success occurs when no one is looking, failure occurs when the boss is watching.
  • As soon as you've ordered the pizzas, 25 patients show up at the ER registration desk along with three ambulances all with cardiac arrests!
  • For every action, there is an equal and opposite criticism.
  • Ten seconds after you have finished giving a complete bed bath and changing the bed, the patient has a giant code brown.
  • If a patient needs four pills, the packet will contain three.
  • Your buddies who were reading the paper at the nurses' desk a minute ago always disappear when you need help ...
  • Expect to get your pay raise the same day the hospital raises the parking rates (and other charges)
  • The better job you do, the more work you can expect to be handed ...
  • The amount of clean linen available is inversely proportional to your immediate needs.
  • The more confused and impulsive a patient is, the less chance there is for a family member or friend to sit with the patient.
  • The perfect nurse for the job will apply the day after that post is filled by some semi qualified idiot.
  • If only one solution can be found for a problem, then it is usually a stupid solution.
  • When the nurse on the preceding shift has surrounded the patient with absorbent pads, the code brown will hit every sheet and miss every pad.
  • Rest assured that when you are in a hurry, the nurse's notes have not been written.
  • When you are starting an IV on an uncooperative patient, or dealing with a huge code brown, there is a phone call for you and it's that crabby physician that you have been paging all morning.
  • Fire drills always occur on your day from hell
  • The first person in line when the clinic opens will not require urgent care. The sickest person will arrive 5 minutes before closing: "I thought I'd feel better"
  • The Nursing Catch-22:
    If you're running around horribly busy, you're unorganized and need to prioritize, but if you're not running around horribly busy, you're lazy and need to find more work to do.

Philippine Nursing : Is it just for the Green Bucks?

Friday, October 12, 2007

Read this With Caution. . .

I had my blog hopping just a while ago and i found this pic made me wonder: Are we Filipinos, just after dollars to be working and living in abroad? Well, personally, i have to say im bitter-sweet about this issue. First off, what will you do if youre gonna stay here in the homeland, be patriotic and all those blah blahs and yet, work every peso to spend for the family? I mean, its just not practical to stay here. Secondly, going abroad is the reason why Philippine's Corrupted, Trashy and ill-centered Economy is still afloat. What do you think is the reason why the peso got higher since Estrada's bogus acts? And thirdly, Filipinos by tradition is just so overwhelmed to go abroad. Its like the moslem belief Haj or the pilgrimage to mecca. For filipinos, their life is not complete if they will not be able to go abroad. Think about the preference for IMPORTED. C'mon, tell you you dont prefer foreign branded shoes for marikina-made products. To top it all off, Filipinos are innately ambitious, which is not bad. Not bad at all. As the song goes, "kasalanan ba sa langit kung humingi ako ng isang himala". Well, not just be too ambitious that you cant reach it. Its wiser to think realistically than positively. Just a word of thought.

Im done with the Bitter part, and now for the other side of the coin, Filipinos are far better english speakers than THE REST OF THE ASIAN NATIONS. And i say it with pride and glory. Any nationalities that has something to tell me about it, im glad to hear from you. ;) Heck, theres even more english speakers here than in England. Thanks to the ever productive filipino genes, we reached 87 Million as of last year and just occupied every habitat available around the globe. Another thing is that, Filipinos, are by genes industrious. Think about this: Americans work get paid by hours and filipinos do it by 15-days or some, even monthly. I mean, the work of filipinos especially in the rural areas compared to the ones in NY for example is incomparable. If a farmer would be paid per hour on the rate same as in US, theyll be the biggest money earners in the Phils. This im assured of. And lastly, Philippine nurses are destined to be great abroad. We Simply Are The Best Nurses There Is! What can you say?

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Nursing Models : Ramona Mercer's Model of Nursing

Monday, October 8, 2007

Ramona Mercer is the author of a mid-range nursing theory: "A theoretical framework for studying factors that impact on the maternal role". Over the past 30 years, Mercer has conributed many works to the refinement of this theory and is credited as a nurse-theorist.

Stages of Maternal Role Attainment

  • Anticipatory

Begins in pregnancy: Learns expectations of motherhood role

  • Formal

Assumed at birth: Behavior's guided by others

  • Informal

Learns own way of mothering

  • Personal

Has achieved harmony, competence and confidence in mothering role Role Attainment. Mid-Range M-Z. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.

Works by Ramona T. Mercer

  • Mercer, Ramona (1980). "Teenage motherhood: The first year". Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 9: 16-27.
  • Mercer, Ramona (1981). "A theoretical framework for studying factors that impact on the maternal role". Nursing Research 30: 73-77.
  • Mercer, Ramona (1985). "The process of maternal role attainment over the first year". Nursing Research 34: 198-204.
  • Mercer, Ramona (1986). First-time motherhood: Experiences from teens to forties. New York: Springer.
  • Mercer, Ramona (1986). "Theoretical models for studying the effect of antepartum stress on the family". Nursing Research.
  • Mercer, Ramona (1995). Becoming a mother: Research on maternal identity from Rubin to the present. New York: Springer.
  • Mercer, Ramona; Ferketich, S. (1990). "Predictors of parental attachment during early parenthood". Journal of Advanced Nursing 15: 268-280.
  • Mercer, Ramona; Ferketich, S. (1994). "Predictors of maternal role competence by risk status". Nursing Research 43: 38-43.

Nursing Models : Casey's Model of Nursing

Casey's Model of Nursing was developed in 1988 by Anne Casey whilst working on the Paediatric Oncology Unit at the Great Ormond Street Hospital London. The focus of the model is on working in partnership with children and their families, and was one of the earliest attempts to develop a model of practice specifiaclly for child health nursing. The model has been developed in other areas of England to focus upon local aspects of practice.

It comprises the five concepts of child, family, health, environment and the nurse. The philosophy behind the model is that the best people to care for the child is the family with help from various professional staff. There should therefore be a partnership between parent and carers. Another paediatric nursing model developed by Smith in 'Children's nursing in practice: The Nottingham Model' emphasises the family as client. The Casey Model sees the child as the client.

-Casey's Model of Nursing

Nursing Theories : Tidal Model

The Tidal Model is a model for the promotion of mental health developed by Professor Phil Barker, Poppy Buchanan-Barker and their colleagues. The Tidal Model focuses on the continuous process of change inherent in all people. It seeks to reveal the meaning of people's experiences, emphasising the importance of their own voice and the power of metaphor when carrying out assessment. It aims to empower people to reclaim control of their lives using the three domains of self, world and others.

In order for the practitioner to begin the process of engagement using the Tidal Model, the following needs to be accepted:

  • that recovery is possible
  • that change is inevitable - nothing lasts
  • that ultimately, people know what is best for them
  • that the person possess all the resources they need to begin the recovery journey
  • that the person is the teacher and the helpers are the pupils
  • that the helper needs to be creatively curious, to learn what needs to be done to help the person, now!

The philosophy underpinning the model comes from research into what people need for care in mental health carried out by Prof. Barker and Dr. Chris Stevenson at the University of Newcastle, UK in 1995.

Three domains

The process of engaging with the person in distress takes place in three discrete domains. With the Tidal Model, the practitioner explores these dimensions to be aware of the situation in the present time and determine what needs to happen now.

  • Self domain is where people feel their world of experience. There is an emphasis on making people feel more secure and the practitioner helps the person develop a Security Plan to reduce threats to the person or others around them.
  • World domain is where people hold their story. The Tidal Model practitioner uses a specific form of inquiry to explore this story collaboratively, revealing its hidden meanings, the person's resources, and to identify what needs to be done to assist recovery.
  • Others domain represents the various relationships the person has: past, present and future. This includes Tidal Model practitioners but also other members of the health and social care team, friends, family and supporters.

The power of metaphor

The Tidal Model uses the metaphor of water and describes how people in distress can become emotionally, physically and spiritually shipwrecked. It sees the experience of health and illness as a fluid, rather than a stable phenomenon, and life as journey undertaken on an ocean of experience. It proposes that in mental health, the factors associated with a psychiatric crisis, or its more enduring consequences, can be diverse as well as cumulative. It states that by appreciating this metaphor, nurses or other helpers will gain a greater understanding of the person's current situation and the inevitability of change. With this, the helper may, in time, be guided to care with the person beginning their journey from the state of being washed ashore, drowning or being otherwise marooned by their life problems. Following the rescue, exploration can then begin as to what caused the storm in the first place and what needs to be done immediately to set sail again.

The Ten Commitments

The values of the Tidal Model can be distilled into ten commitments:

  1. Value the voice - the person's story is paramount
  2. Respect the language - allow people to use their own language
  3. Develop genuine curiosity - show interest in the person's story
  4. Become the apprentice - learn from the person you are helping
  5. Reveal personal wisdom - people are experts in their own story
  6. Be transparent - both the person and the helper
  7. Use the available toolkit - the person's story contains valuable information as to what works and what doesn't
  8. Craft the step beyond - the helper and the person work together to construct an appreciation of what needs to be done 'now'
  9. Give the gift of time - time is the midwife of change
  10. Know that change is constant - this is a common experience for all people

Nursing Theories : Callista Roy's Model of Nursing

Roy's model of nursing sees an individual as a set of interrelated systems, biological, psychological, and social. The individual tries to maintain a balance between each of these systems and the outside world. However, there is no absolute level of balance. According to Roy we all strive to live within a band where we can cope adequately. This band will be unique to an individual. The adaptation level is the range of adaptability within which the individual can deal effectively with new experiences.

Sr. Callista Roy maintains there are four main adaptation systems which she calls modes of adaptation. She calls these the physiological system, the self concept system, the role mastery system, and the interdependency system.

Nursing Theorists : Isabel Adams Hampton Robb

Isabel Adams Hampton Robb (18601910) was one of the founders of modern American nursing theory and one of the most important leaders in the history of nursing.

She graduated from the Bellevue Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1883. After gaining experience working as a nurse in Rome she traveled back to the United States to take a position as superintendent of nursing at the Cook County Hospital nursing school in Chicago. In her time as head of the nursing program there she implemented an array of reforms that set standards for nursing education. Most of these standards are still followed today.

One of her most notable contributions to the system of nursing education was the implementation of a grading policy for nursing students. Students would need to prove their competency in order to receive qualifications.

In 1889 she was appointed head of the new Johns Hopkins nursing school, where she continued to suggest reforms, participated in teaching, and published the text Nursing: Its Principles and Practice. After five years at Johns Hopkins she married Dr. Hunter Robb, and resigned to follow him to his new position as professor of gynecology at Case Western Reserve University. The Bullough article reports that she herself became a professor of gynecology. However, documents from Case Western and reference books differ from this account. Instead, they show that she worked with Cleveland's new Lakeside Hospital Training School for Nurses, the nucleus for Case Western's future School of Nursing. She also wrote two more books, Nursing Ethics(1900) and Educational Standards for Nurses (1907).

Other accomplishments include terms as president of American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses (now known as National League for Nursing), and of the organization that became the American Nurses Association. She was also one of the founders of the American Journal of Nursing.

Nursing Theorists : Hildegard Peplau

Hildegard Peplau, Ed.D (b. September 1, 1909, Reading, Pennsylvania - d. 17 March 1999) was a nursing theorist whose seminal work Interpersonal Relations in Nursing was published in 1952.

Dr. Peplau emphasized the nurse-client relationship as the foundation of nursing practice. At the time, her research and emphasis on the give-and-take of nurse-client relationships was seen by many as revolutionary. Peplau went on to form an interpersonal model emphasizing the need for a partnership between nurse and client as opposed to the client passively receiving treatment (and the nurse passively acting out doctor's orders).

The essence of Peplau's theories is the creation of a shared experience. Nurses, she thought, could facilitate this through observation, description, formulation, interpretation, validation, and intervention.

For example, as the nurse listens to her client she develops a general impression of the client's situation. The nurse then validates her inferences by checking with the client for accuracy. The result may be experiential learning, improved coping strategies, and personal growth for both parties.

Hildegard Peplau died in 1999, aged 89.

Nursing Theorists : Dorothea Elizabeth Orem

Dorothea Elizabeth Orem (1914- 22.06.2007) , born in Baltimore, Maryland, was a nursing theorist and founder of the Orem model of nursing, or Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory.

In simplest terms, this theory states that nurses have to supply care when the patients cannot provide care to themselves.

Dorothea Elizabeth Orem 92, died Friday, June 22, 2007 at her residence on Skidaway Island. She was a native of Baltimore, Maryland and resident of Washington DC before moving to Savannah 20 years ago. She was a Professor with the Catholic University in the School of Nursing. She was an author of books on the theory of nursing and for the past 25 years she was an independent consultant and scholar. She is survived by her life long friend, Walene Shields of Savannah and her cousin Martin Conover of Minneapolis, MN. Visitation will be 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Sunday, June 24, 2007 at Fox and Weeks Funeral Directors, Hodgson Chapel. A Mass of Christian burial will be Monday, June 25, 2007 at 2 p.m. at St. James Catholic Church with burial in the Catholic Cemetery.

Nursing Theorists : Madeleine Leininger

Madeleine Leininger (13 July 1925 in Sutton, U.S.) is a pioneering nursing theorist, first published in the early 1980s. Her contributions to nursing theory involve the discussion of what it is to care. Most notably, she developed the concept of transcultural nursing, bringing the role of cultural factors in nursing practice into the discussion of how to best attend to those in need of nursing care.

Dr. Madeleine Leininger holds the following academic degrees and titles:

Nursing Theorists : Virginia Henderson

Virginia Avenel Henderson (November 30, 1897 - March 19, was an American nurse, researcher, theorist, and author.

She was born in Kansas City, Missouri, the fifth of eight children of Lucy Abbot Henderson and Daniel B. Henderson and a descendant of a long line of scholars and educators.

She graduated from the Army School of Nursing, Washington, D.C., in 1921. She is part of the "Columbia school" of nursing theory, having graduated from Teachers College, Columbia University, with a M.A. degree in nursing education. She died at the Connecticut Hospice. She is buried in the family plot of the churchyard of St. Stephen's Church, Forest, Bedford County, Virginia.

Henderson is famous for a definition of nursing:

"The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge." (Henderson, 1966, p. 15 The nature of nursing. NY: Macmillan.)

The International Council of Nurses presented her with the first Christianne Reimann Prize in June 1985.

Nursing Theorists : Helen Erickson

Helen Lorraine (Cook) Erickson is the primary author of the theory, Modeling and Role-Modeling. Her work, co-authored with Tomlin, E. and Swain, M.A., was derived from years of clinical practice, was first published in 1983 by Prentice Hall and later by the EST Company. In 2006 she edited a book that provides additional, in-depth information that describes relations among soul, spirit, and human form. This 522 page book contains chapters authored by several Modeling and Role-Modeling scholars. Three other books are in process.

A society for the advancement of Modeling and Role-Modeling was established in 1985 at The University of Michigan. The Society meets biannually and provides information regarding related research, publications, etc.

Erickson was married to Lance Erickson in 1957 in Clare, Michigan. Together they live in Cedar Park, Texas where she holds the title of Professor Emeritus, The University of Texas at Austin.

The Models And Theories of Nursing

Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to support nursing practice. In their professional education nurses will study a range of interconnected subjects which can be applied to the practice setting. This knowledge may be derived from experiential learning, from formal sources such as nursing research or from non-nursing sources. To speak of nursing theory is often difficult. Nursing is many things to many people. Most universally agreed upon is that Nursing is a science involving people, environment and process fueled by a vision of transcendence in the context of healthcare. It is interesting to note that 90% of all Nursing theories have been generated in the last 20 years. Many schools encourage students to formulate theories of Nursing as part of their curriculum. Some might argue that this multiplicity of theory is detrimental to the practice and undermines common vision. Others would say that the nature of the young science is sufficiently far reaching to require such tactics in order to elicit true consensus. It cannot be denied, however, that there is much vanity involved in the formulation of nursing theory. The pages of "Nursing Science Quarterly", a major mouthpiece for Nursing Theory, are rife with examples of semantical hair-splitting.

Nursing models are conceptual models, constructed of theories and concepts. They are used to help nurses assess, plan, and implement patient care by providing a framework within which to work. They also help nurses achieve uniformity and seamless care.

The Philippine Nursing Law - Nursing Code of Ethics In The Philippines



Be it enacted by the Senate and house of representative of the Philippines in Congress assembled.


Section 1. Title. – This Act shall be known as the “Philippine Nursing Act of 2002”


Sec. 2 Declaration of Policy. – It is hereby declared the policy of State to assume responsibility for the protection and improvement of the nursing profession by instituting measures that will result in relevant nursing education, humane working condition, better career prospects and dignified existence for our nurses. The State hereby guarantees the delivery of quality basic health services through an adequate nursing personnel system throughout the country.


Sec. 3 Declaration and Composition of the board. – There shall be created a Professional Regulatory Board of Nursing, hereinafter referred to as the Board, to be composed of a Chairperson and six (6) members. They shall be appointed by the President of the Republic of the Philippines from among two (2) recommendees, per vacancy, of the Professional Regulation Commission, chosen and ranked from a list of three (3) nominees, per vacancy, of the accredited professional organization of nurses in the Philippines who possess the qualification prescribed in Section 4 of this Act.

Sec. 4 Qualification of the Chairperson and Members of the Board. – The chairperson and Members of the board shall, at the time of their appointment, possess the following qualification:

  1. Be a natural born citizen and resident of the Philippines;
  2. Be a member of good standing of the accredited professional organization of nurses;
  3. Be a registered nurses and holder of a master’s degree in nursing, education or other allied medical profession conferred by a college or university duly recognized by the Government Provided, That the majority of the Members of the Board shall be holders of degree in nursing. Provided, further, That the Chairperson shall be a holder of a master’s degree in nursing;
  4. Have at least ten (100 years of continuos practice of profession prior to appointment: Provided, however, That the last five (5) years of which shall be in the Philippines; and
  5. Not have been convicted of any offense involving moral turpitude;

Provided, That the membership to the Board shall represent the three (3) areas of nursing, namely: nursing education, nursing services and community health nursing.

Sec. 5Requirements Upon Qualification as Member of the Board of Nursing.-Any person appointed as Chairperson or Member of the Board shall immediately resign from any teaching position in any school, college, university or institution offering Bachelor of Science in Nursing and/ or review program for the local nursing board examinations or in any office or employment in the government or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, inclusing government-owned or-controlled corporation or their subsidiaries as well as those employed employed in the private sector. He/ she shall not have any pecuniary interest in administrative supervision over any institution offering Bachelor of Science in Nursing including review classes.

Sec. 6. Terms of Office. - The Chairperson and Members of the Board shall hold office for a term of three (3) years and until their successors shall have been appointed and qualified: Provided, That the Chairperson and Members of the Board may be reappointed for another term.

Any vacancy in the Board occurring within the term of a Member shall be filled for the unexpired portion of the term only. Each Member of the Board shall take the proper oath of the office prior to the performance of his/her duties.

The incumbent Chairperson and Members of the Board shall continue to serve for the remainder of their term under Republic Act No. 7164 until their replacements have been appointed by the President and shall have been duly qualified.

Sec. 7. Compensation of Board Members. – The Chairperson and Members of the shall receive compensation and allowances received by the Chairperson and members of the professional regulatory boards.

Sec. 8. Administrative Supervision of the Board, Custodian of its Records, Secretariat and Support Services. – The Board shall be under the administrative supervision of the Commission. All records of the Board, including applications for examinations, administrative and other investigative cases conducted by the Board shall be under the custody of the Commission. The Commission shall designate the secretary of the Board and shall provide the secretariat and other support services to implement the provision of this Act.

Sec. 9. Powers and Duties of the Board. – The Board shall supervise and regulate the practice of the nursing profession and shall have the following powers, duties and functions;

  1. Conduct the licensure examination for nurses;
  2. Issue, suspend or revoke certificates of registration for the practice of nursing;
  3. Monitor and enforce quality standards of nursing practice in the Philippines and exercise the powers necessary to ensure the maintenance of efficient, ethical and technical, moral and professional standards in the practice of nursing taking into account the health needs of the nation;
  4. Ensure quality nursing education by examining the prescribed facilities of universities or colleges of nursing education and those seeking permission to open nursing courses to ensure that standards of nursing education are properly complied with and maintained at all times. The authority to open and close colleges of nursing and/or nursing education programs shall be vested on the Commission on Higher Education upon the written recommendation of the Board;
  5. Conduct hearings and investigations to resolved complaints against nurse practitioners for unethical and unprofessional conduct and violations of this Act, or its rules and regulations and in connection therewith, issue subpoena ad testificandum and subpoena duces tecum to secure the appearance of respondents and witnesses and production of documents and punish with contempt persons obstruction, impending and/or otherwise interfering with the conduct of such proceedings, upon application with the court;
  6. Promulgate a Code of Ethics in coordination and consultations with the accredited professionals organizations of nurses within one (1) year from the affectivity of this Act;
  7. Recognize nursing specialty organizations in coordination with the accredited professional organization; and
  8. Prescribe, adopt, issue and promulgate guidelines, regulations, measures and decisions as my be necessary for the improvement of the nursing practice, advancement of the profession and for the proper and full enforcement of this Act subject to the review and approval by Commission.

Sec. 10 Annual Report., – The Board shall at the close of its calendar year submit an annual report to the President of the Philippines through the Commission giving a detailed account of its proceedings and the accomplishments during the year and making recommendation for the adoptions of measures that will upgrade and improved the condition affecting the practice of the nursing profession.

Sec. 11. Removal or Suspension of Board Members. - The President may removed or suspend any members of the Board after having been given the opportunity to defend himself/herself in a proper administrative investigation, on the following grounds;

  1. Continued neglect of duty or incompetence;
  2. Commission or toleration of irregularities in the licensure examination; and
  3. Unprofessional, immoral or dishonorable conduct.


Sec. 12. Licensure Examination. – All applicants for license to practice nursing shall be required to pass a written examination, which shall be given by the Board in such places and dates as may be designated by the Commission: Provided, That it shall be in accordance with Republic Act No. 8981, other known as the “PRC Modernization Act of 2000.”

Sec. 13. Qualification for Admission to the Licensure Examination. – In order to be admitted to the examination for nurses, an applicant must establish, to the satisfaction of the Board, that:

  1. He/she is a citizen of the Philippines, or a citizen of subject of a country, which permits Filipino nurses to practice within its territorial limits on the same basis as the subject, or such country. Provided, That the requirements for the registration or licensing of nurses in said country are substantially the same as those prescribed in this Act;
  2. He/she is of good moral character, and
  3. He/she is a holder of a Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing from a college or university that complies with the standards of nursing education duly recognized by the proper government agency.

Sec. 14. Scope of Examination. – The scope of the examination for the practical of nursing in the Philippines shall be determined by the Board. The Board shall take into consideration the objectives of the nursing curriculum, the board areas of nursing, and other related disciplines and competencies in determining the subjects of examinations.

Sec. 15. Ratings. - In order to pass the examination, an examine must obtain a general average of at least seventy-five percent (75%) with a rating of not below sixty percent (60%) in any subject. An examinee who obtains an average ratings of seventy-five (75%) or higher but gets a rating below sixty percent (60%) in any subject must take the examination again but only in the subjects where he/she is rated below sixty percent (60%). In order to pass the succeeding examination, an examinee must obtain a rating of at least seventy-five percent (75%) in the subject or subjects repeated.

Sec. 16. Oath. – All successful candidates in the examinations shall be required to take an oath of professional before the Board or any government official authorized to administer oaths prior to entering upon the nursing practice.

Sec. 17. Issuance of Certificate of Registration/ Professional License and Professional Identification Card. – A certificate of registration/professional license as a nurse shall be issued to an applicant who passes the examination upon payment of the prescribed fees. Every certificate of registration/professional license shall show the full name of the registrant, the serial number, the signature of the Chairperson of the Commission and of the Members of the Board, and the official seal of the Commission.

A professional identification card, duly signed by the Chairperson of the Commission, bearing the date of registration, license number, and the date of issuance and expiration thereof shall likewise be issued to every registrant upon payment of the required fees.

Sec. 18. Fees for Examination and Registration. – Applicants for licensure and for registration shall pay the prescribed fees set by Commission.

Sec. 19.Automatic Registration of Nurses. – All nurses whose names appear at the roast of nurses shall be automatically or ipso facto registered as nurses under this Act upon its affectivity.

Sec. 20. Registration by Reciprocity. – A certificate of registration/professional license may be issued without examination to nurses registered under the laws of a foreign state or country. Provided, That the requirements for registration or licensing of nurses in said country are substantially the same as those prescribed under this Act: Provided, Further, That the laws of such state or country grant the same privileges to registered nurses of the Philippines on the same basis as the subjects or citizens of such foreign state or country.

Sec. 21. Practice Through Special/Temporary Permit. – A special/temporary permit may be issued by the Board to the following persons subject to the approval of the Commission and upon payment of the prescribed fees;

  1. Licensed nurses from foreign countries/state whose service are either for a fee or free if they are internationally well-known specialist or outstanding experts in any branch or specialty of nursing;

  2. Licensed nurses from foreign countries/state on medical mission whose services shall be free in a particular hospital, center or clinic; and

  3. Licensed nurses from foreign countries/state employed by schools/ in a branch or specialty of nursing;

Provided, however, That the special/temporary permit shall be effective only for the duration of the project, medical mission or employment contact.

Sec. 22. Non-registration and Non-issuance of Certificates of Registration/Professional License or Special/Temporary Permit. – No person convicted by final judgement of any criminal offense involving moral turpitude or any person guilt of immoral or dishonorable conduct or any person declared by the court to be of unsound mind shall be registered and be issued a certificate of registration/ professional license or a special/temporary permit. The Board shall furnish the applicant a written statement setting forth the reasons for its actions, which shall be incorporated in the records of the Board.

Sec. 23. Revocation and suspension of Certificate of Registration / Professional License and Cancellation of Special / temporary Permit. – The Board shall have the power to revoke or suspend the certificate of registration/ professional license or cancel the special/temporary permit of a nurse upon any of the following grounds:

  1. for any of the causes mentioned in the preceding section;
  2. for unprofessional and unethical conduct;
  3. For gross incompetence or serious ignorance;
  4. For malpractice or negligence in the practice of nursing;
  5. For the use of fraud, deceit, or false statement in obtaining a certificate of registration/professional license or a temporary special permit;
  6. For violation of this Act, the rules and regulations, Code of Ethics for nurses and technical standards for nursing practice, policies of the Board and the Commission, or the conditions and limitations for the issuance of the temporary/ special permit; or
  7. For practicing his/her profession during his/her suspension from such practice;

Provided, however, That the suspension of the certificate of registration/professional license shall be for a period not to exceed four (4) years.

Sec. 24. Re-issuance of Revoked Certificates and replacement of lost Certificates. – The Board may, after the expiration of a maximum of four (4) years from the date of revocation of certificate, for reasons of equity and justice and when the cause for revocation has disappeared or has been cured and corrected, upon proper application therefore and payment of the required fees, issues another copy of the certificate of registration/professional/license.

A new certificate of registration/ professional license to replace the certificate that has been lost, destroyed or mutilated may be issued, subject to the rules of the Board.


Sec. 25. Nursing Education Program. – The nursing education program shall provide general and professional foundation for the practice of nursing The learning experience shall adhere strictly to specific requirements embodied in the prescribed curriculum as promulgated by the Commission on Higher Education’s policies and standards of nursing education.

Sec. 26. Requirement for Inactive Nurses Returning to Practice. – Nurses who have not actively practiced the profession for five (5) consecutive years are required to undergo one (1) month of didactic training and three (3) months of practicum. The Board shall accredited hospitals to conduct the said training program.

Sec. 27. Qualification of the Faculty. - - A member of the faculty in a college of nursing teaching professional courses must:

  1. Be a registered nurses in the Philippines;
  2. Have at least one (1) year of clinical practice in a field of specialization;
  3. Be a member of good standing in the accredited professional organization of nurses; and
  4. Be a holder of a master’s degree in nursing, education, or other allied medical and health sciences conferred by a college or university duly recognized by the Government of the Republic of the Philippines.

In addition to the aforementioned qualifications, the dean of a college must have a master’s degree in nursing. He/she must have at least five (5) years of experience in nursing.


Sec. 28. Scope of Nursing. – a person shall be deemed to be practicing nursing within the meaning of this Act when he/she singly or in collaboration with another, initiates and performs nursing services to individuals, families and communities in any health care setting. It includes, But not limited to, nursing care during conception, labor, delivery, infancy, childhood, toddler, pre-school, school age, adolescence, adulthood and old age. As independent practitioners, nurses are primarily responsible for the promotion of health and prevention of illness. As members of the health team, nurses shall collaborates with other health care providers for the curative, preventive, and rehabilitative aspects of suffering, and when recovery is not possible, towards a peaceful death. It shall be the duty of the nurse to:

  1. Provide nursing care through the utilization of the nursing process. Nursing care include, but not limited to traditional and innovative approaches, therapeutic use of self, executing health care techniques and procedures, essential primary health care, comfort measures, health teachings, and administration of written prescription for treatment, therapies, oral, topical and parental medications, internal examination during labor in the absence of antenatal bleeding and delivery. In case of suturing of perennial laceration, special training shall be provided according to protocol established;
  2. Established linkages with community resources and coordination with the health team;
  3. Provide health education to individuals, families and communities;
  4. Teach, guide and supervise students in nursing education programs including the administration of nursing services in varied settings such as hospitals and clinics, undertake consultation services in varied settings such as hospitals and clinics, undertake consultation services; engage in such activities that require the utilization of knowledge and decision-making skills of a registered nurse; and
  5. Undertake nursing and health human resources development training and research, which shall include, but not limited to, the development of advance nursing practices;

Provided, That the section shall not apply to nursing students who performed nursing function under the direct supervision of a qualified faculty: Provided, further, that in the practice of nursing in all settings, the nurse is duty-bound to observe the Code of Ethics for nurses and uphold the standards of safe nursing practice. The nurse is required to maintain competence by continual learning through continuing professional organization or any recognized professional organization: Provided, finally, That the program and activity for the continuing professional education shall be submitted to and approved by the Board.

Sec.29. Qualifications of Nursing services Administrators. – A person occupying supervisory or managerial position requiring knowledge of nursing must:

  1. Be a registered nurse in the Philippines;
  2. Have at least two (2) years experience in general nursing service administration;
  3. Possess a degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing, with at least nine (9) units in management and administration courses at the graduate level; and
  4. Be a member of good standing of the accredited professional organization of nurses;

Provided, That a person occupying the position of chief nurse of director of nursing service shall, in addition to the foregoing qualifications, posses;

  1. At least five (5) years of experience in a supervisory or management position in nursing; and
  2. A master’s degree major in nursing

Provided, further, That for primary hospitals, the maximum academic qualifications and experiences for a chief nurse shall be as specified in subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section. Provided, furthermore, That for chief nurses in the public health agencies, those who have a master’s degree in public health/community health nursing shall be given priority. Provided, even further, That for chief nurses in military hospitals, priority shall be given to those who have finished a master’s degree in nursing and the completion of the General Staff Coarse (GSC): Provided, finally, That those occupying such positions before the affectivity of this Act shall be given a period of five (5) years within which to qualify.


Sec.30. Studies for Nursing Manpower Needs, Production, Utilization and Development. – The Board, in coordination with the accredited professionals organization and appropriate government or private agencies shall initiate, undertake and conduct studies on health human resources production, utilization and development.

Sec. 31. Comprehensive Nursing Specialty Program. – Within ninety (90) days from the affectivity of this Act, the Board in coordination with the accredited professional organization, recognized specialty organizations and the Department of Health is hereby mandate to formulate and develop a comprehensive nursing specialty program that would upgrade the level skill and competence specialty nurse clinicians in the country, such as but not limited to the areas of critical care, oncology, renal and such other areas as may be determined by the Board.

The beneficiaries of this program are obliged to serve in any Philippine hospital for a period of at least two (2) years of continuous service.

Sec. 32. Salary. – In order to enhance the general welfare, commitment to service and professionalism of nurses, the minimum base pay of nurses working in the public health institutions shall not be lower than salary grade 15 prescribed under Republic Act No. 6758. Otherwise known as the “Compensation and Classification Act of 1989”: Provided, That for nurses working in local government units, adjustments to their salaries shall be in accordance with Section 10 of the said law.

Sec. 33. Funding for the Comprehensive Nursing Specialty Program. – The annual financial requirement needed to train at least ten percent (10%) of the nursing staff of the participating government hospital shall be chargeable against the income of the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office and Philippines Amusement and Gaming Corporation, which shall equally share in the cost and shall be released to the Department of health subject to accounting and auditing procedures: Provided, That the Department of Health shall set the criteria for the availment of this program.

Sec. 34. Incentives and Benefits. – The Board of Nursing, in coordination with the Department of Health and other concerned government agencies, association of hospitals and accredited professional organization shall establish an incentive and benefit system in form of free hospital care for nurses and their dependents, scholarship grants and other non-cash benefits. The government and private hospitals are hereby mandate to maintain the standards nurse-patient ratio set by the Department of Health


Sec. 35. Prohibitions in the Practice of Nursing. – A fine of not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) nor more than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) or imprisonment of not less than one (1) year nor more than six (6) years, or both, upon the discretion of the court, shall be imposed upon:

  1. any person practicing nursing in the Philippines within the meaning of this Act:
  2. without a certificate of registration/professional license and professional identification card or special temporary permit or without having been declared exempt from examination in accordance with the provision of this Act; or
    1. who uses as his/her own certificates of registration/professional license and professional identification card or special temporary permit of another; or
    2. who uses as invalid certificate of registration/professional license, a suspended or revoked certificate of registration/professional license, or an expired or cancelled special/temporary permit; or
    3. who gives any false evidence to the Board in order to obtain a certificate of registration/professional license, a professional identification card or special permit; or
    4. who falsely poses or advertises as a registered and licensed nurse or uses any other means that tend to convey the impression that he/she is a registered and licensed nurse; or
    5. who appends B.S.N./R.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing/Registered Nurse) or any similar appendage to his/her name without having been conferred said degree or registration; or
    6. who, as a registered and licensed nurse, abets or assist the illegal practice of a person who is not lawfully qualified to practice nursing.
  3. any person or the chief executive officer of a juridical entity who undertakes in-service educational programs or who conducts review classes for both local and foreign examination without permit/ clearance from the Board and the Commission; or
  4. any person or employer of nurses who violate the minimum base pay of nurses and the incentives and benefits that should be accorded them as specified Section 32 and 34; or
  5. any person or the chief executive officer of juridical entity violating any provision of this Act and its rules and regulations.


Sec. 36. Enforcement of this act. – It shall be the primary duty of the Commission and the Board to effectively implement this Act. Any duly law enforcement agencies and officers of national, provincial, city or municipality governments shall, upon the call or request of the Commission of the Board, render assistance in enforcing the provisions of this Act and prosecute any persons violating the same.

Sec. 37. Appropriations. – The Chairperson of the Professional Regulation Commission shall immediately include in its program and issue such rules and regulations to implement the provision of this Act, the funding of which shall be included in the Annual General Appropriations Act.

Sec.38. Rules and Regulations. – Within ninety (90) days after the affectivity of this Act, the Board and the Commission, in coordination with the accredited professional organization, the Department of Health, the Department of Budget and Management and other concerned government agencies, shall formulate such rules and regulations necessary to carry out the provision of this Act. The implementing rules and regulations shall be published in the Official Gazette or in any newspaper of general circulation.

Sec. 39. Separability Clause. – If any part of this Act is declared unconstitutional, the remaining parts not affected thereby shall continue to be valid and operational.

Sec.40. Repealing Clause. – Republic Act. No. 7164, otherwise known as the “Philippine Nursing Act of 1991” is hereby repealed . All other laws, decrees, orders, circulars, issuance, rules and regulations and parts thereof which are inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed, amended or modified accordingly.

Sec. 41. Effectivity. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days upon its publication in the Official Gazette or in any two (2) newspapers of general circulation in the Philippines. #

Best US CitiesFor Nurses

courtesy of

Minority Nurse recently announced a list of top ten cities and regions in the US that offer the highest salaries and the most number of opportunities for nurses.

Among the top ten include (in alphabtical order) Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Charlotte, NC; Houston, TX; Las Vegas, NV; Oakland, CA; Phoenix and Meza, AZ; Tampa and St. Petersburg, FL; and West Palm Beach, FL.


Atlanta, GA
Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $53,360
Cost of Living Index: 97.7 (Lower is better)
Future Trends: Demand for nurses in Georgia will increase an estimated 51% from the year 2000 to 2020.

Baltimore, MD
Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $70,100
Cost of Living Index: 119.5
Future Trends: Demand for nurses in Maryland will increase an estimated 36% from the year 2000 to 2020.

Boston, MA
Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $70,460
Cost of Living Index: 136.4
Future Trends: Demand for nurses in Massachusetts will increase an estimated 29% from the year 2000 to 2020.

Charlotte, NC

Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $54,740
Cost of Living Index: 90.3
Future Trends: Demand for nurses in North Carolina will increase an estimated 51% from the year 2000 to 2020.

Houston, TX
Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $58,720
Cost of Living Index: 88.1
Future Trends: Demand for nurses in Texas will increase an estimated 57% from the year 2000 to 2020.

Las Vegas, NV
Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $59,470
Cost of Living Index: 107.6
Future Trends: Demand for nurses in Nevada will increase an estimated 59% from the year 2000 to the year 2020.

Oakland, CA
Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $80,270
Cost of Living Index: 143.9
Future Trends:
Demand for nurses in California will increase an estimated 58% from the year 2000 to 2020.

Phoenix and Mesa AZ

Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $56,960
Cost of Living Index: 100.4
Future Trends: Demand for nurses in Arizona will increase an estimated 61% from the year 2000 to 2020.

Tampa and St. Petersburg, FL
Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $52,960
Cost of Living Index: 98.8
Future Trends: Demand for nurses in Florida will increase an estimated 63% from the year 2000 to 2020.

West Palm Beach, FL
Annual Mean Salary for RNs: $57,930
Cost of Living Index: 118.9
Future Trends: The percentage of elderly citizens in West Palm Beach will continue to grow at a rate that outpaces the rest of the country.

December 2007 Philippine Licensure Nursing Board Exam Results -

Everybody is now preparing for the Big Event. The highlight of their Nursing Career, the boiling point of the hard work of every Filipino Nurses' aspirations, Its the December 2007 Philippine Nursing Board Exam Results.

I have two friends that are determined to be a nurse no matter what it takes them. But before anything else, they have to go through the process of making it to the passer's list this coming December 2007 Philippine Nursing Board Exam.

A friend is now in Baguio to review for the Philippine Nursing Board exam using the Gapuz Review Center and the other one, stayed in house of here at Manresa (She's also from Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan like me). This is the situation now, who is going to get their money's worth? The one who spent more for a Gapuz Review? Or the other who who stayed in the City for an In-House Review?

Well, we all have to find out after the release of the Philippine Nursing Board Exam Results December 2007. And to all of the aspiring nurses that are bound to become one, GodSpeed!

Philippine Nursing Board Exam Results December 2007 is going to be out after an indefinite period of time after the examinations. Let's all pray for an honest and truthful Nursing Board Exam.